Most SARS-CoV-2 infections are not asymptomatic; those with asymptomatic infections are less infectious
Odds ratios increased for hospital admission, ICU admission, death with increased exposure to increased ground-level ozone
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a frequent cause of respiratory infections, with the most severe cases reported in young children and seniors.
Across the world, there were 33 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection episodes in children under five years old in 2019, leading to 101,400 RSV-attributable deaths overall.
Seizure-related visits increased to almost prepandemic levels for all age groups by end of 2020, except among those aged 0 to 9 years
A new study published in the peer-review The Lancet Oncology has found that while COVID-19 vaccination is effective in most cancer patients, protection against infection, hospitalization, and death is less than in the general population.
And COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness wanes more quickly in certain cancer patients.
More than twofold risk of acute pulmonary embolism and respiratory signs and symptoms among survivors aged 18 to 64, ≥65 years
The goal of any preventive vaccination program is to limit the spread of disease in the community. However, with monkeypox infections occurring in about twenty countries, anyone who has been in close contact with an infected person could qualify for vaccination.
"I want to emphasize that we're in the early days of this (monkeypox) response. Unfortunately, additional cases will likely be reported in the U.S.," Jennifer McQuiston, a deputy director of the CDC's National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases, reported RollCall on May 23, 2022.
No specific causes of symptoms of postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection identified
In these cases, the illness improved or resolved within an average of three days
According to a recent retrospective cohort study conducted at the Hospital del Mar in Barcelona, Spain, when adults were hospitalized with COVID-19, they were at a greater risk of death than those with influenza.
After accounting for potential confounders, including age, comorbidities, sex, disease severity, pneumonia, and corticosteroid treatment, these researchers found that COVID-19 patients were more than three times as likely to die after being admitted to hospital than influenza patients.
The recent announcement from the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) continued expanding westward and is now impacting about half of U.S.
A global leader in influenza prevention recently announced a significant investment in a new Research and Development (R&D) facility located in Waltham, Mass.
Seqirus, a business of CSL Limited, confirmed on February 7, 2022, the new facility will support the company’s growing R&D portfolio, focusing on a self-amplifying messenger RNA (sa-mRNA) technology platform, the next generation of mRNA technology.
In a new study from the University of Copenhagen, vaccination against influenza was found to not change the risk of hospitalization or symptoms due to COVID-19.
And influenza vaccination was not associated with the risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection as assessed by the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.
This study focused on the working population and subgroup analyses of outcomes related to the severity of disease included a sparse number of HCW aged ≥65 who had contracted SARS-CoV-2.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced initial estimates for influenza vaccine uptake among children and pregnant women for the 2021-2020 flu season are lower compared to the same time last season.
The reported 15% point drop in influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women and a 6% decrease in children could put many people at risk this flu season.
The CDC stated on October 27, 2021, this trend ‘could be dangerous for many of the people in these groups who may be at higher risk of developing serious influenza complications.’
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported two previous human infections with novel influenza A viruses.
One infection with an influenza A(H1N1) variant (A(H1N1)v) virus was reported by North Dakota that occurred during the 2020-21 influenza season.
And one infection with influenza (A(H3N2)v) virus was reported by Ohio that occurred during the current 2021-22 influenza season.
Both patients are younger than 18 years of age, were not hospitalized, and have recovered or are recovering from their illness.
The latest data indicates the 2021 flu season has not arrived in America from the Southern Hemisphere, and neither have influenza-related fatalities.
Of the 15,625 samples tested by U.S. Public Health Laboratories last week, only two were positive for influenza viruses as of October 1, 2021.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) announced recommendations for the routine use of influenza vaccine and antiviral medications to prevent and treat influenza in children during the 2021–2022 influenza season.
The AAP stated on September 7, 2021, it recommends annual influenza immunization of all children without medical contraindications, starting at six months of age.
Excerpts from the AAP statement are discussed below:
Influenza H3N2 virus continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially for the older age groups, stated researchers in a new study published by The Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Although seasonal influenza vaccines are evaluated annually for the need to update the immunization with antigenically contemporary strains, H3N2 vaccine efficacy (VE) with currently licensed vaccines continues to be lower than for H1N1 or B viruses.
Since flu vaccines are most protective when the influenza season is intense, the timing of getting the annual vaccination is essential.
Unlike most flu seasons, predicting when the 2021-2022 flu season will reach the USA from the Southern Hemisphere is unknown, said the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) vaccine committee on June 24, 2021. The CDC recently reported influenza cases were lower this year than any flu season since 2005.
The WHO Africa announced today that the country of Malawi successfully launched a cholera vaccination campaign targeting more than 1.9 million children.
Local health authorities, with support from World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners, will carry out the two-round campaign in eight cholera hotspot districts of Nsanje, Chikwawa, Phalombe, Mulanje, Blantyre, Machinga, Mangochi, and Balaka.
The first round started on May 23, 2022, and will be followed by a second-round two to six weeks later.
Over the past three weeks, the global monkeypox outbreak has raised many questions. Finally, an essential clinical opinion has just been answered.
A non-peer-reviewed study from Lisbon, Portugal, published on May 19, 2022, is the first draft genome sequence of the monkeypox virus associated with the ongoing outbreak. This sequence was obtained from a male patient collected on May 4th from skin lesions.
A first rapid phylogenetic analysis of the draft genome indicates that the 2022 version belongs to the West African clade.
According to a recent U.S. CDC announcement, the Caribbean country of Haiti has been confronted again with an outbreak of dogs infected with the rabies virus.
The CDC issued a Watch – Level 1, Practice Usual Precautions alert to international travelers of their potential health risks on May 5, 2022.
The CDC says ‘To prevent contracting rabies while in Haiti, travelers should avoid all contact with dogs and cats. Rabid dogs may be infectious for several days before showing signs of rabies.’
The UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) recently announced six additional individuals had been diagnosed with monkeypox in London. On May 14, 2022, the UKHSA confirmed these cases live together in the same household.
And on May 16, 2022, four new monkeypox cases were confirmed in England. Where and how they acquired their infection remains under investigation.
The U.S. Transportation Security Administration (TSA) recently announced, for the first time since the COVID-19 pandemic began, that it is prepared for passenger screening activity that may match and occasionally exceed those of 2019.
As of May 13, 2022, TSA data reflects airport checkpoint screening has returned to about 90%.
However, the continued recovery from the low travel volumes may require more patience and planning than was necessary before the pandemic.
The World Health Organization (WHO) reported Australia’s recent Japanese Encephalitis (JE) outbreak continues spreading unabated.
The first human JE case was reported in early March 2022 from Queensland.
As of April 28, 2022, Australian health authorities reported a cumulative 37 human cases of Japanese encephalitis (25 laboratory-confirmed cases and 12 probable cases) and 3 related fatalities in four Australian states.
This outbreak represents the first locally-acquired JE cases detected on the Australian mainland since 1998.
Every year the World Health Organization (WHO) marks African Vaccination Week in the last week of April. The week provides the opportunity to showcase how innovative vaccines protect us, young and old, against more than twenty-five vaccine-preventable diseases.
This year’s theme, “Long Life for All,” highlights the life-saving potential of vaccines such as for yellow fever.
Yellow fever is an epidemic-prone mosquito-borne vaccine-preventable disease caused by an arbovirus transmitted to humans by the bites of infected Aedes and Haemagogus mosquitoes.
The World Health Organization (WHO) recently led an outbreak response assessment in mid-April 2022, concluding that poliovirus is no longer circulating in Tajikistan.
And the WHO recommended an official closure of the polio outbreak on April 28, 2022.
The outbreak in Tajikistan marked the first detection of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) in the WHO European Region.
Detection of just one polio case from a wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus is considered an outbreak and requires an immediate and comprehensive response, says the WHO.
The Ministry of Health (MoH) in Israel recently confirmed the ninth polio case diagnosed in the Jerusalem area since March 2022.
These are Israel's first local polio cases in more than three decades.
Furthermore, testing of the virus revealed genetic links to circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 3 (cVDPV3) strains detected in environmental samples collected between September 2021 and January 2022 from sites in Jerusalem, Beit Shemesh, Tiberias, and Modiin Illit.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently announced two COVID-19 travel-related updates based on the evolving COVID-19 pandemic in the United States and internationally.
As of April 13, 2022, the CDC confirmed its Mask Order remains in effect while the agency assesses the potential impact of the rise of cases on severe disease, including hospitalizations and deaths, and healthcare system capacity.